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Standard of Waterproof Luxury Vinyl Tile

Views:17 Publish Time: 2021-08-24 : Louis Lu

Standard of Waterproof Luxury Vinyl Tile

Preface

 

This standard is prepared and implemented with reference to GB/T4085-2015 Semirigid Polyvinyl Chloride Floor Tiles, GB/T 34440-2017 Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride Flooring, ISO 10582-2012 Resilient Floor Coverings - Heterogeneous Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Floor Coverings - Specification and ASTMF1700-2010 Standard Specification For Solid Vinyl Floor Tile.


Waterproof Luxury Vinyl Tile

1  Scope

This standard specifies the terms and definitions, classification and marking, requirements, test methods, inspection and testing, packaging, transportation and storage of waterproof luxury vinyl tiles.

Marking

This standard is applicable to the floor tiles with PVC resin plate as the main raw material and laminated on the surface and used for indoor floor.

2  Normative References

The clauses in the following documents are referred and become the clauses of this standard.

GB/T 2828.1-2003/ISO 2859-1: 1999 Sampling Procedures for Inspection by Attributes

GB/T4085-2015 Semirigid Polyvinyl Chloride Floor Tiles

GB/T34440-2017 Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride Flooring

GB/T18102-2007 Laminate Flooring

ISO 10582-2012 Resilient Floor Coverings - Heterogeneous Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Floor Coverings - Specification

ASTM F1700-2010 Standard Specification For Solid Vinyl Floor Tile

3  Terms and Definitions

The following terms and definitions apply to this standard

3.1  Waterproof luxury vinyl tile

The floor tile is made by laminating together wear-resistant layer or other surfaces made of different materials and PVC substrate.

4   Classification and Marking

4.1.1 Classification by product category:

a)     NC;

b)     NCP;

c)     RLVT;

d)     RPC;

e)     FFW;

f)     WPL;

g)     LVT;

 

4.1.2 Classification according to product structure:

a)     Foamed substrate;

b)     Solid substrate;

4.2  Product marking

The substrate used in the product is marked according to the product name, for example, the PVC substrate used to produce NC products is marked as NC-PVC.

5   Requirements

5.1  Appearance

The appearance of the plate shall comply with the provisions in Table 1.

Table 1 Appearance Quality Requirements


High-class   products

Qualified   products

Dry   and wet print defects

Not   allowed

Their   total area shall not exceed 3% of the tile surface

Surface   color difference

Slight   difference is allowed and the obvious is not allowed.

Tile   print

The print shall be natural, its lines shall be   clear, and wood grain shall be clear and natural.

Relief   effect

Shall   be the same with the reference template

PVC   color

Brown   or black or white-same as template

The   color observed under a magnifying glass shall be uniform, without impurities   and discrepancy between old and new materials

Definition   deviation

Slight   deviation is allowed and the obvious is not allowed.

Uneven   gloss

Not   allowed

Uneven   gloss total area shall not exceed 3% of the tile surface

Plastic   effect

Not   allowed. The surface shall look natural.

Pinhole

Not   allowed (pinhole definition: Small holes caused by shrinkage in the drying   process of paint film)

Paint   absence

Not   allowed (definition of paint absence: There is no paint film on a certain   area)

wrinkled   skin

Not   allowed (wrinkled skin definition: Surface wrinkling caused by shrinkage of   paint film)

Particle

Not   allowed (particle definition: Particulate impurities attached to the paint   film surface)

Blotch

Not   allowed (blotch definition: Defects caused by dust, ink stain and impurities   during printing and other processes)

≤10mm2,   only 1 is allowed

Bright   spot

Not   allowed

Surface   crease

Not   allowed

Layer   separating

Not   allowed (layer separating definition: Separation of substrate itself,   covering layer itself or separation between covering layer and substrate.)

Surface   scratches

Not   allowed

Surface   indentation

Swell

Paper   scraps, impurities, bug and dust

Paper   tearing; local paper absence

Surface   cracking

Angle   defect

Imprint,   bright line

They   shall be invisible at a distance of 1.5 meters Normal light is under normal   light condition

Edge   chipping

Its   area shall be ≤lmm2, length ≤lmm, width ≤1mm and one tile in every 10 tiles   is allowed to have edge chipping

Bubbles   in male tenon and female groove

If the   substrate structure is soft due to foaming of the substrate, it is not   allowed

A   short side tenon is too long

The   decision shall be made according to the supporting drawings

Defects   of male tenon and female groove

For   long side, if the defect is ≤15mm, and the no. of defects is ≤2 per side,   they are allowed; for short side, if the defect is ≤ 15mm, and the no. of   defects ≤ 1 per side, it is allowed.

Same   pattern

For   short tile < 1.5m: There shall be at least three different patterns in   each case.

For   long tile > 1.5m: There shall be at least two different patterns in each   case.

Back   code

It   shall be clearly visible with accurate information

Back

It   shall be clean and smooth; any chamfer has no edge chipping and no shedding

Cork/foam

Visual   effects: It shall be the same with the reference sample, without any glue   failure, no edge damage; any chamfer shall be smooth without glue stain.

Impurities   and dust on the back

Not   allowed

 

5.2  Dimensional deviation

Dimensional deviation shall comply with the provisions in Table 2.

Table 2 Dimensional Deviation Provisions

 

Net length deviation of surface layer

The absolute value of that the difference ∆L between ln and   each measure value lm shall be ≤0.20mm

Net width deviation of surface layer

The absolute value of the difference between nominal width Wn and average   width Wa shall be ≤ 0.10mm.  The   difference between the maximum width Wmax and the minimum width Wmin should   be ≤ 0.15mm.

Thickness deviation

Overall thickness: +0.13mm, -0.10mm

Thickness of wear-resistant layer: ±0.03mm

Thickness of substrate: ±0.10mm

Back layer thickness: ±0.30mm

Squareness

Qmax≤0.15mm

Edge straightness

Smax≤0.20mm/m

Warpage

In width   direction: Convex warpage fw1≤0.15%/ concave warpage fw2≤0.15%

In length direction: Convex warpage fl1≤0.50%/ concave warpage fl2≤0.25%

Assembly seam

Average Oa≤0.10mm  maximum   Omax≤0.15mm

Check the assembly seam between different tiles in the same batch with   assembly metal modules.

Assembly height difference

Average value:    ha≤0.10mm   maximum value:   hmax<0.15mm

Check the height difference between different tile in the same batch with   assembly metal module.

assembly joint

According to the projector and drawings, the projection error shall be   < ±0.10mm. The assembly shall be checked with metal modules.

Chamfer width

Refer to the enterprise standard WI-QA4-034 BS4 Chamfer Size Standard

 

5.3  Physical properties

Physical properties shall meet the requirements of Table 3.

 

Table 3 Physical Properties Requirements

 

Inspection Items

Test   Method

Unit

Standard

Wood powder

/

0%

PVC additive materials should not contain wood powder

Density

EN436

Kg/m3

PVC substrate

850-2100

Finished product

1100-2100

Static bending strength

GB 17657

Mpa

Average ≥15

Elastic modulus

GB 17657

Mpa

Average ≥ 4000 

Shrinkage 5℃*6h

ISO 23999

%

Average length: ≤0.10% ; Average width: ≤0.10%;

Warpage: <0.5mm

Expansion at 45℃*6h (1200*150mm)

%

Average length: ≤ 0.10%; average width:    ≤ 0.10%;

Warpage: <0.5mm

Shrinkage 80℃*6h (200*150mm)

%

Average length: ≤ 0.25% ; Average width: ≤0.25%;

Warpage: ≤2.0mm

Surface resistance to cold and heat cycling 60℃*2h-0℃*2h

GB 17657

%

No cracking or   bubbling

Width ≤0.2%, length ≤ 0.5%, deformation: <2mm

Joint tension

ISO 24334

N/50mm

≥120

peel strength

EN 431

N/50mm

≥70

Surface scratch resistance

ISO 1518

g

≥3000g

Surface wear resistance

ASTM D4060

Circle

≤0.015g/1000r (CS-17)

shock resistance

EN 13329

Big ball

≥IC2

≥1600mm

Small ball

≥20N

Climate test

/

10°C -45°C

Gap ≤0.2mm, tile ≤ 0.2%, length ≤0.05% without floating effect

35°C-5°C

gloss

/

60 ° gloss meter

According to product PC

Paint film/gloss

/

For definition deviation, the following is not   allowed: obviously deviation

Under natural   luminosity or fluorescent lamp, obliquely visually inspect the product at a   distance of 160cm from the product with naked eyes, the product surface   should be looked coated smoothly.

Uniform gloss,   no obvious stripes, completely solidified surface, no sticky and wet feeling   when touched by hand.

Gloss shall be that of customer reference sample ± 2 °

 5.4      Hygienic property

Hygienic property of products shall meet the requirements of Table 4.

 

Table 4 Hygienic Property of Products

 

Items

Chemical   name

Limit

Testing   standard

Heavy   metal*

Barium

Ba

≤1000PPM

DIN EN71-3

Plumbum

Pb

≤160PpM

Cadmium

Cd

≤100PPM

Stibium

Sb

≤100PPM

Selenium

Se

≤100PPM

Mercury

Hg

≤100PM

Arsenic

As

≤100PPM

Chromium

Cr

≤100PPM

ROHS/REACH

Polybrominated Biphenyls(PBBs)

≤1000PPM

ROHS/REACH


Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers(PBDEs)

≤1000PpM



PAHs

≤lmg/kg


Phthalates

 

DEHP

117-81-7

≤1000PPM

ROHS/REACH

DBP

84-74-2

BBP

85-68-7

DINP

28553-12-0

DIDP

26761-40-0

DNOP

17-84-0

Floorscore

VOC

A+

ISO 16000

Formaldehyde

≤9ug/m3

ISO 16000







 

6   Test method

6.1  Test conditions

Before the test, the specimen must stand for at least 24h under the standard conditions of temperature 23℃ ±2℃ and relative humidity 50% ±5%, and be tested under this condition.

6.2  Measuring instruments

6.2.1       Steel tape measure with a length of 3m and a division value of 1.0mm.

6.2.2       Steel plate ruler with division value of 0.5 mm.

6.2.3       Micrometer with division value of 0.01 mm.

6.2.4       Vernier caliper with division value of 0.02 mm.

6.2.5       Feeler gauge with division value of 0.02 mm.

6.3  Specimen preparation

The size and quantity of test pieces shall comply with the provisions in Table 5.

 

Table 5 Size and Quantity of Test Pieces

 

Test items

Size /mm

Quantity / piece

Appearance and size

Intact product

5

Assembling effect

Intact product

10

Density

100*100

3

Elastic modulus

Length (20* thickness +50)* width 50

3 for transverse test and 3 for longitudinal test

Static bending strength

Length (20* thickness +50)* width 50

3 for transverse test and 3 for longitudinal test

Shrinkage 5℃*6h

500*150

3

Expansion at 45℃*6h

1200*150

3

Shrinkage 80℃*6h

200*150

3

Cold and hot cycle

150*100

3

Sun resistance

Intact product

6

Joint tension

150*50

1 for male tenon and 1 for female groove

Joint pressure

400*100

1 for male tenon and 1 for female groove

peel strength

100*50

3

Surface scratch resistance

100*50

1

Wear resistance

50*50

1

Residual indentation

50*50

1

Shock resistance

180*180

5

Climate test

Intact product

3

Gloss

Intact product

2

 

6.3  Appearance

Under scattered sunlight or fluorescent lamp, the illuminance is (100±20) lx, and the distance from the specimen is 100cm. Visually inspect the appearance obliquely, and record the existence of various defects stipulated in Table 1.

6.4  Dimensional deviation

6.4.1       Length measurement method

It refers to the net length of the floor tile surface layer. The distance between the two short sides shall be measured at 20mm from the long side of the floor tile with suitable calipers or other tools.

9c53a1a770aacef6721b2a9b37f344cd.jpg

Fig. 1 Length (L) Measurement Diagram

 

6.4.2       Width measurement method

It refers to the net width of the floor tile surface layer. The distance between the two long sides shall be measured at 20mm from the short side of the floor tile and central axis with suitable calipers or other tools.

86e63373a2f1eb1f38578996cbe087cf.jpg

Fig. 2 Width (W) Measurement Diagram

 

6.4.3      Thickness measurement method

The thicknesses shall be measured with calipers at the four tile corners 20mm away from each side and at the middle point of each long side 20mm away from of the side.

2be336f379b90eb60072cbb08f1b5e72.jpg

Fig. 3 Thickness (t) Measurement Diagram

 

6.4.4       Squareness measurement method

Put one side of a square ruler close to a long side of the floor tile, measure the maximum distance between the other side of the square ruler and the end of the tile side end with a feeler gauge.

5a32ccb707f853fa9de576bb82f57cd7.jpg

Fig. 4 Squareness (q) Measurement Diagram

6.4.5       Edge straightness

Along the length direction of the floor tile, use a 1M long steel ruler to abut against the two adjacent corners of the tile, and use a feeler gauge to measure the maximum chord height between the side and the straight steel ruler.

4518ca9571bb9c42c1234731a93cd95a.jpg

Fig. 5 Measurement Diagram of Edge Straightness (s)

 

6.4.6       Warpage in width direction

Place the concave surface of the tile upward on the horizontal table top, use a steel ruler to abut against the two long sides of the tile, and measure the maximum chord height with a feeler gauge. The ratio of the maximum chord height to the measured width is the warpage in the width direction, expressed in percentage. The ruler measuring position can be any corresponding part of the long side.

e8607037a3ce9469d8297e5de69a2456.jpg

Fig. 6 Width Warpage (fw) Measurement Diagram

 

6.4.7       Warpage in the longitudinal direction

Place the tile long side vertically on the horizontal platform, abut both ends of the side to the steel ruler, and measure the maximum chord height with a feeler gauge. The ratio of the maximum chord height to the measured length is the warpage in the length direction, expressed in percentage. The ruler measuring position can be any corresponding part of the short side.

dbeb6ee14bf2e318a32b9167f4777686.jpg

Fig. 7 Measurement Diagram of Warpage (fl) in Length Direction

 

6.4.8       Assembly gap and height difference

Assemble the floor tiles tightly as shown in the figure below and place them on a horizontal platform. Measure the gap and height difference at the assembly joint with a feeler gauge. Take the average value and the maximum value.

0290082484996d83e92b6d15f54f33e7.jpg

Fig. 8 Measurement Diagram of Assembly Open SeamO and Height Difference (h)

 

6.4.9 Assembly and disassembly strength

 

Assembling: If they can be assembled easily by pressing them with one finger, the assembly is unacceptable, because it is too loose; if they can be assembled by taping the short side with a rubber hammer, and with a crisp sound, it is acceptable.

Disassembly: When you lift the short side of male tenon with your hand, and gently slap the joint with one hand, if it can be separated, it is unacceptable because it is too loose; when you lift the short side of male tenon with your hand, and hit the joint hardly on the tile back, if the joint does not separate, and the tile can be disassembled by sliding along the width direction, and the joint is qualified.

6.4.10    Assembly gloss

In order to avoid the difference of gloss after assembly, check the gloss of products before assembling. If there are obvious differences in visual inspection, it is necessary to pick them out. After assembling, visually check whether there are different gloss of products in bright light. Obvious difference is not allowed.

6.4.11     Limit of hazardous substances

Refer to the test methods listed in Table 4.

7 Inspection rules

7.1  Inspection classification

Inspection is divided into two categories: client-required inspection and client-not-required inspection.

7.1.1       Client required inspection: Complete inspection according to client's requirements before shipment.

7.1.2      Client does not require inspection: Complete specified sampling during product packaging.

7.2  Inspection Rules

7.2.1       Inspection scope:

a. Appearance quality inspection;

b. Specifications and dimensions inspection;

c. Physical and chemical property test.

7.2.2      Batch rules

The products produced in the same shift, in the same specification and the same type shall belong to one batch.

 

7.3 Sampling inspection method and criteria

7.3.1     General

For the product quality inspection of tiles, samples shall be taken from the same batch of products according to the regulations, and the samples shall be inspected one by one, and the samples shall be counted one by one.

7.3.2       Specifications and dimensions inspection

7.3.2.1   For thickness deviation, surface layer net length deviation, surface layer net width deviation, squareness, edge straightness and warpage, adopt the normal inspection of double sampling inspection plans stipulated in GB/T 2828.1— 2003; the inspection level is I, and the acceptance quality limit is AQL=6.5, as shown in Table 6. Test the sample n1 according to the specifications and dimensions inspection method. The products will be accepted when unqualified products d1≤Ac1, and rejected when d1≥Re1; if Ac1≤d1≤Re1, sample n2 shall be inspected; the products will be accepted when d1+d2≤Ac2 of the unqualified products in the n1 and n2 samples and if d1+d2≥Re2, rejected.

 

 

                                                                                                                             

         Table 6 Sampling Plan for Specifications and Dimensions.  The no. is the tile no.:

 

Batch no. range

Sample size

First decision numbers

Second decision numbers

n1= n2

∑n

Accept Ac1

Reject Re1

Accept AC2

Reject Re2

0-500

8

16

0

2

2

3

501-1200

13

26

1

3

3

4

1201-1900

20

40

2

4

4

5

1901-2600

29

58

3

5

5

6

2601-3000

40

80

4

6

6

7

>3000

40

80

4

6

6

7

 

 

7.3.2.2   the number of samples for the inspection of assembly seam separation and assembly height difference is ten. The ten samples shall be randomly selected from the same batch of products for specifications and sizes inspection. The single sampling inspection plan is adopted. When the inspection results meet the requirements of Table 2, they are accepted, otherwise they are rejected.

7.3.3     Appearance quality inspection

7.3.3.1   The appearance quality inspection adopts the secondary sampling scheme of normal inspection in GB/T2828.1—2003, with the inspection level of H and the acceptance quality limit AQL=4.0, as shown in Table 7. Samples n1 are inspected according to the finished product inspection regulations. The products will be accepted when unqualified products d1≤Ac1, and rejected when d1≥Re1; if Ac1≤d1≤Re1, sample n2 shall be inspected; the products will be accepted when d1+d2≤Ac2 of the unqualified products in the n1 and n2 samples and if d1+d2≥Re2, rejected.

 

                                                                                                         

              Table 7 Sampling Plan for Appearance Quality.                                                                                                           The no. is the tile no.:

 

Batch   no. range

Sample   size

First   decision numbers

Second   decision numbers

ni=   n2

∑n

Accept   Ac1

Reject   Re1

Accept   AC2

Reject   Re2

0-600

16

32

0

2

3

4

601-1200

32

64

2

5

6

7

1201-1800

50

100

3

6

9

10

1801-2400

68

136

4

7

11

12

2401-3000

80

160

5

8

13

14

3001-6000

160

320

9

15

25

26

6001-12000

320

640

19

30

50

51

7.3.4       Physical and chemical property test

7.3.4.1   During the tile environment adapting or tongue-and-groove process, QC on duty shall provide samples to the laboratory for testing according to the order number. The number of tests is shown in Table 8. Any three tiles shall be a group. If a certain index fails in the initial inspection, it is allowed to conduct re-inspection, where double samples shall be taken from the batch of products. After re-inspection, if all the unqualified items in the initial inspection are qualified and judged to be qualified; if one item is unqualified again, the products will be judged as unqualified  

7.3.4.2. See Table 8 for criteria.

                                                     

Table 8 Sampling Plan for Physical and Chemical Properties.  The no. is the tile no.:

 

Finished product quantity of inspected batch

Initial sampling no.

Re-inspection sampling no.

<1000

3

6

>1001

6

12

Note: If the sample size is small and the sampling no. according to the above   plan cannot meet the test requirements, the number of samples can be   appropriately increased.

 

7.4  Judgment

When all the physical and chemical property test results of tile samples meet the corresponding grade requirements, the physical and chemical property of this batch will be judged as qualified, otherwise, this batch will be judged as unqualified.

7.5  Comprehensive judgment

When the inspection results of product appearance quality, specification size and physical and chemical properties all meet the corresponding grade requirements, the batch of products shall be judged as qualified, otherwise, the batch of products shall be judged as unqualified.

7.5.1 Requirements of inspection report

The inspection report shall include

a)        all the details of the grade, inspection standard, inspection category and inspection items of the products to be inspected;

b)       inspection results and conclusions

c)        all kinds of abnormal situations in the inspection process and problems that need to be explained.

8  Marking, packaging, transportation and storage

8.1  Product marking

Before the products are put into storage, the manufacturer's name, product name, product model, trademark, production date, product category, grade, specification, etc. shall be marked on the appropriate parts of the products.

8.2 .2 Packaging label

The packaging label shall contain the manufacturer's name, address, date of manufacture, product name, specification, production grade, quantity and other information.

8.2  Packaging

Products shall be packed separately according to product category, specification and grade before leaving the factory. Detailed installation and operation instructions should provide  according to the characteristics of the products. Packaging should ensure that products are free from bumping, scratching and stains. Packaging requirements can also be determined by negotiation between supplier and demander.

 

8.3  Transportation and storage

During transportation and storage, the products shall be stacked smoothly to prevent stains, and shall not be affected with damp, rain or sun exposure.

When storing, they should be stacked separately according to category, specification and grade, and each pile should be marked accordingly.

 

 


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